"विकिपीडिया:Non-free content" की अवतरण में अंतर

→‎In general: before 1923, not before 1922
(Undid revision 174541682 by Father Goose I don't think this is obvious and on first glance I disagree. Let's discuss first then add if there is consensus.)
(→‎In general: before 1923, not before 1922)
Under [[United States copyright law]], creative works published in the United States prior to 1923 are in the [[public domain]]. Some creative works published in the United States between 1923 and 1963 are still copyrighted. It is illegal (among other things) to reproduce or make [[derivative works]] of copyrighted works without legal justification.<ref>"A 1961 Copyright Office study found that fewer than 15% of all registered copyrights were renewed. For books, the figure was even lower: 7%. Barbara Ringer, "Study No. 31: Renewal of Copyright" (1960) "Study No. 31: Renewal of Copyright" (1960), reprinted in Library of Congress Copyright Office. Copyright law revision: Studies prepared for the Subcommittee on Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights of the Committee on the Judiciary, United States Senate, Eighty-sixth Congress, first [-second] session. (Washington: U. S. Govt. Print. Off, 1961), p. 220. ... A good guide to investigating the copyright and renewal status of published work is Samuel Demas and Jennie L. Brogdon, "Determining Copyright Status for Preservation and Access: Defining Reasonable Effort," Library Resources and Technical Services 41:4 (October, 1997): 323-334." [http://www.copyright.cornell.edu/training/Hirtle_Public_Domain.htm , Hirtle, Peter (2007) ''Copyright Term and the Public Domain in the United States'' footnote 7]. Of the ''total US material'' first published between 1923 and 1963, the percentage of renewed copyrights is far lower, because most published material was never registered at all.</p></ref> Unless a thorough search is conducted to determine that a copyright has expired or not been renewed, it should be regarded as copyrighted.<ref>To find out how to search for copyright registrations and renewals, see, e.g., [http://www.copyright.gov/circs/circ22.pdf How to Investigate the Copyright Status of a Work], [http://collections.stanford.edu/copyrightrenewals/bin/page?forward=home Stanford's Copyright Renewal Database], [http://onlinebooks.library.upenn.edu/webbin/gutbook/author?name=United%20States%20Copyright%20Office Project Gutenberg] and [http://onlinebooks.library.upenn.edu/cce/ INFORMATION ABOUT The Catalog of Copyright Entries].</ref>
Certain works have no copyright at all. Most material [[Publication | published]] in the United States before 19221923, works published before 1978 without a [[copyright notice]], with an expired copyright term, or produced by the [[Government of the United States | US government]], among others, is [[public domain]], i.e. has no copyright. Some such as photos and scans of 2-dimensional objects and other "slavish reproductions", short text phrases, typographic logos, and product designs, do not have a sufficient degree of creativity apart from their functional aspects to have a copyright.
Copyright law only governs creative expressions that are "fixed in a tangible medium of expression," not the ideas or information behind the works. It is legal to reformulate ideas based on written texts, or create images or recordings inspired by others, as long as there is no copying (see [[plagiarism]] for how much reformulation is necessary).