यूरोप के देस सभ के लिस्ट

नीचे यूरोप की सगरी देशन क एगो सूची बनावल जात बा:

संप्रभु राष्ट्रEdit

* = यूरोपियन यूनियन (EU) क सदस्य देस[1]
देस क झंडा नक्शा अंगरेजी आधारित छोट नाँव आ फोर्मल नाँव
[2][3][4]
घरेलू छोट नाँव आ फोर्मल नाँव
[2][3]
राजधानी
[4][5][6]
जनसंख्या
[a][7]
क्षेत्रफल
[a][8]
अल्बानिया[i]

Republic of Albania
अल्बानियन: Shqipëri / Shqipëria — Republika e Shqipërisë तिराना

अल्बानियन: Tiranë
3,002,859 28,748 किमी2 (11,100 वर्ग मील)
अंडोरा

Principality of Andorra
कैटलान: Andorra — Principat d'Andorra Andorra la Vella

कैटलान: Andora la Vella
85,082 468 किमी2 (181 वर्ग मील)
आर्मेनिया[b]

Republic of Armenia
आर्मेनियाई: Հայաստան — Հայաստանի Հանրապետություն (Hayastan — Hayastani Hanrapetut'yun) Yerevan

आर्मेनियाई: Երևան (Yerevan)
2,970,495 29,743 किमी2 (11,484 वर्ग मील)
ऑस्ट्रिया*

Republic of Austria
जर्मन: Österreich — Republik Österreich वियना

जर्मन: Wien
8,219,743 83,871 किमी2 (32,383 वर्ग मील)
अज़रबैजान[b]

Republic of Azerbaijan
अजरबैजानी: Azǝrbaycan — Azǝrbaycan Respublikası बाकू

अजरबैजानी: Bakı
9,493,600 86,600 किमी2 (33,436 वर्ग मील)
बेलारूस

Republic of Belarus
बेलारूसी: Беларусь — Рэспубліка Беларусь

रूसी: Беларусь — Республика Беларусь (Bielarus' — Respublika Belaruś)
मिंस्क

बेलारूसी: Мінск (Minsk)
9,643,566 207,600 किमी2 (80,155 वर्ग मील)
बेल्जियम*

Kingdom of Belgium
जर्मन: Belgien — Königreich Belgien

फ्रेंच: Belgique — Royaume de Belgique

डच: [België — Koninkrijk België] error: {{lang}}: text has italic markup (help)
ब्रशेल्स

जर्मन: Brüssel

फ्रेंच: Bruxelles

डच: [Brussel] error: {{lang}}: text has italic markup (help)
11,154,709 30,528 किमी2 (11,787 वर्ग मील)
बोस्निया अउरी हर्जेगोविना Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian Latin: Bosna i Hercegovina

Bosnian, Serbian Cyrillic: Босна и Херцеговина
साराजीव

Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian Latin: Sarajevo

Bosnian, Serbian Cyrillic: Сарајево
3,879,296 51,197 किमी2 (19,767 वर्ग मील)
Bulgaria*

Republic of Bulgaria
बुल्गारियाई: България — Република България (Bǎlgarija — Republika Bǎlgarija) Sofia

बुल्गारियाई: София (Sofia)
7,037,935 110,879 किमी2 (42,811 वर्ग मील)
Croatia*

Republic of Croatia
क्रोएशियाई: [Hrvatska — Republika Hrvatska] error: {{lang}}: text has italic markup (help) Zagreb

क्रोएशियाई: [Zagreb] error: {{lang}}: text has italic markup (help)
4,480,043 56,594 किमी2 (21,851 वर्ग मील)
साइप्रस*[c]

Republic of Cyprus
यूनानी: Κύπρος — Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία (Kýpros — Kypriakí Dimokratí)

तुर्की: Kıbrıs — Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti
निकोसिया

यूनानी: Λευκωσία (Lefkosia)

तुर्की: Lefkoşa
1,138,071 9,251 किमी2 (3,572 वर्ग मील)
चेक गणराज्य* चेक: Česko — Česká republika प्राग

चेक: Praha
10,513,209 78,867 किमी2 (30,451 वर्ग मील)
डेनमार्क*[f]

Kingdom of Denmark
डैनिश: [Danmark — Kongeriget Danmark] error: {{lang}}: text has italic markup (help) कोपेनहेगन

डैनिश: [København] error: {{lang}}: text has italic markup (help)
5,543,453 43,094 किमी2 (16,639 वर्ग मील)
इस्टोनिया*

Republic of Estonia
इस्टोनियाई: [Eesti — Eesti Vabariik] error: {{lang}}: text has italic markup (help) तालिन

इस्टोनियाई: [Tallinn] error: {{lang}}: text has italic markup (help)
1,274,709 45,228 किमी2 (17,463 वर्ग मील)
फिनलैंड*

Republic of Finland
फिनलैंडी: [Suomi — Suomen tasavalta] error: {{lang}}: text has italic markup (help)

स्वीडिश: [Finland — Republiken Finland] error: {{lang}}: text has italic markup (help)
हेलसिंकी

फिनलैंडी: [Helsinki] error: {{lang}}: text has italic markup (help)

स्वीडिश: [Helsingfors] error: {{lang}}: text has italic markup (help)
5,262,930 338,145 किमी2 (130,559 वर्ग मील)
France*

French Republic
फ्रेंच: France — République française Paris

फ्रेंच: Paris
65,630,692 643,427 किमी2 (248,429 वर्ग मील)
Georgia[b] जॉर्जियाई: საქართველო (Sak'art'velo) Tbilisi / T'bilisi

जॉर्जियाई: თბილისი (T'bilisi)
4,570,934 69,700 किमी2 (26,911 वर्ग मील)
Germany*

Federal Republic of Germany
जर्मन: Deutschland — Bundesrepublik Deutschland Berlin

जर्मन: Berlin
81,305,856 357,022 किमी2 (137,847 वर्ग मील)
Greece*

Hellenic Republic
यूनानी: Ελλάς — Ελληνική Δημοκρατία (Ellás — Elliniki Dimokratia) Athens

यूनानी: Αθήνα (Athína)
10,815,197 131,957 किमी2 (50,949 वर्ग मील)
Hungary* हंगरियन: [Magyarország] error: {{lang}}: text has italic markup (help) Budapest

हंगरियन: [Budapest] error: {{lang}}: text has italic markup (help)
9,958,453 93,028 किमी2 (35,918 वर्ग मील)
Iceland[i]

Republic of Iceland
आइसलैंडी: [Ísland — Lýðveldið Ísland] error: {{lang}}: text has italic markup (help) Reykjavík

आइसलैंडी: [Reykjavík] error: {{lang}}: text has italic markup (help)
313,183 103,000 किमी2 (39,769 वर्ग मील)
Ireland*[d][9] अंगरेजी: Ireland

आयरिश: Éire
Dublin

अंगरेजी: Dublin

आयरिश: Baile Átha Cliath
4,722,028 70,273 किमी2 (27,133 वर्ग मील)
Italy*

Italian Republic
इटैलियन: [Italia — Repubblica Italiana] error: {{lang}}: text has italic markup (help) Rome

इटैलियन: [Roma] error: {{lang}}: text has italic markup (help)
61,261,254 301,340 किमी2 (116,348 वर्ग मील)
Kazakhstan[e]

Republic of Kazakhstan
कजाक: Қазақстан — Қазақстан Республикасы (Qazaqstan — Qazaqstan Respūblīkasy)

रूसी: Казахстан — Республика Казахстан (Kazahstan — Respublika Kazahstan)
Astana

कजाक: Астана

रूसी: Астана (Astana)
17,522,010 2,724,900 किमी2 (1,052,090 वर्ग मील)
Latvia*

Republic of Latvia
लैटवियाई: [Latvija — Latvijas Republika] error: {{lang}}: text has italic markup (help) Riga

लैटवियाई: [Rīga] error: {{lang}}: text has italic markup (help)
2,191,580 64,589 किमी2 (24,938 वर्ग मील)
Liechtenstein

Principality of Liechtenstein
जर्मन: Liechtenstein — Fürstentum Liechtenstein Vaduz

जर्मन: Vaduz
36,713 160 किमी2 (62 वर्ग मील)
Lithuania*

Republic of Lithuania
लिथुआनियन: [Lietuva — Lietuvos Respublika] error: {{lang}}: text has italic markup (help) Vilnius

लिथुआनियन: [Vilnius] error: {{lang}}: text has italic markup (help)
3,525,761 65,300 किमी2 (25,212 वर्ग मील)
Luxembourg*

Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
जर्मन: Luxemburg — Großherzogtum Luxemburg

फ्रेंच: Luxembourg — Grand-Duché de Luxembourg

लक्समबर्गिश: [Lëtzebuerg] error: {{lang}}: text has italic markup (help)
Luxembourg

जर्मन: Luxemburg

फ्रेंच: Luxembourg

लक्समबर्गिश: [Lëtzebuerg] error: {{lang}}: text has italic markup (help)
509,074 2,586 किमी2 (998 वर्ग मील)
fYROM (former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia)[i]

fYROM
मैसीडोनियाई: Македонија — Република Македонија (Makedonija — Republika Makedonija) Skopje

मैसीडोनियाई: Скопје (Skopje)
2,082,370 25,713 किमी2 (9,928 वर्ग मील)
Malta*

Republic of Malta
अंगरेजी: Malta — Republic of Malta

माल्टीज: [Malta — Repubblika ta' Malta] error: {{lang}}: text has italic markup (help)
Valletta

अंगरेजी: Valletta

माल्टीज: [Valletta] error: {{lang}}: text has italic markup (help)
409,836 316 किमी2 (122 वर्ग मील)
Moldova

Republic of Moldova
रोमानियाई: [Moldova — Republica Moldova] error: {{lang}}: text has italic markup (help) Chișinău

रोमानियाई: [Chișinău] error: {{lang}}: text has italic markup (help)
3,656,843 33,851 किमी2 (13,070 वर्ग मील)
Monaco

Principality of Monaco
फ्रेंच: Monaco — Principauté de Monaco Monaco

फ्रेंच: Monaco
30,510 2 किमी2 (0.8 वर्ग मील)
Montenegro[i] Montenegrin: Црна Гора (Crna Gora) Podgorica

Montenegrin: Подгорица (Podgorica)
657,394 13,812 किमी2 (5,333 वर्ग मील)
Netherlands*[f][g][10]

Kingdom of the Netherlands
डच: [Nederland — Koninkrijk der Nederlanden] error: {{lang}}: text has italic markup (help) Amsterdam (capital)

The Hague (seat of government)

डच: [Amsterdam] error: {{lang}}: text has italic markup (help)

डच: ['s-Gravenhage / Den Haag] error: {{lang}}: text has italic markup (help)
16,730,632 41,543 किमी2 (16,040 वर्ग मील)
Norway

Kingdom of Norway
Bokmål: Norge — Kongeriket Norge

Nynorsk: [Noreg — Kongeriket Noreg] error: {{lang}}: text has italic markup (help)
Oslo

Bokmål: Oslo
5,042,402 323,802 किमी2 (125,021 वर्ग मील)
Poland*

Republic of Poland
पोलिश: [Polska — Rzeczpospolita Polska] error: {{lang}}: text has italic markup (help) Warsaw

पोलिश: [Warszawa] error: {{lang}}: text has italic markup (help)
38,415,284 312,685 किमी2 (120,728 वर्ग मील)
Portugal*

Portuguese Republic
पुर्तगाली: Portugal — República Portuguesa Lisbon

पुर्तगाली: Lisboa
10,781,459 92,090 किमी2 (35,556 वर्ग मील)
Romania* रोमानियाई: [România] error: {{lang}}: text has italic markup (help) Bucharest

रोमानियाई: [București] error: {{lang}}: text has italic markup (help)
21,848,504 238,391 किमी2 (92,043 वर्ग मील)
Russia[e]

Russian Federation
रूसी: Росси́я — Российская Федерация (Rossija — Rossijskaja Federacija) Moscow

रूसी: Москва (Moskva)
142,517,670 17,098,242 किमी2 (6,601,668 वर्ग मील)
San Marino

Republic of San Marino
इटैलियन: [San Marino — Repubblica di San Marino] error: {{lang}}: text has italic markup (help) San Marino

इटैलियन: [San Marino] error: {{lang}}: text has italic markup (help)
32,140 61 किमी2 (24 वर्ग मील)
Serbia[i]

Republic of Serbia
सर्बियाई: Србија — Република Србија, Republika Srbija Belgrade

सर्बियाई: Београд, Beograd
7,189,604 88,361 किमी2 (34,116 वर्ग मील)
Slovakia*

Slovak Republic
स्लोवाक: [Slovensko — Slovenská republika] error: {{lang}}: text has italic markup (help) Bratislava

स्लोवाक: [Bratislava] error: {{lang}}: text has italic markup (help)
5,483,088 49,035 किमी2 (18,933 वर्ग मील)
Slovenia*

Republic of Slovenia
स्लोवेनियाई: [Slovenija — Republika Slovenija] error: {{lang}}: text has italic markup (help) Ljubljana

स्लोवेनियाई: [Ljubljana] error: {{lang}}: text has italic markup (help)
1,996,617 20,273 किमी2 (7,827 वर्ग मील)
Spain*

Kingdom of Spain
स्पेनी: España — Reino de España Madrid

स्पेनी: Madrid
47,042,984 505,370 किमी2 (195,124 वर्ग मील)
Sweden*

Kingdom of Sweden
स्वीडिश: [Sverige — Konungariket Sverige] error: {{lang}}: text has italic markup (help) Stockholm

स्वीडिश: [Stockholm] error: {{lang}}: text has italic markup (help)
9,514,406 450,295 किमी2 (173,860 वर्ग मील)
Switzerland

Swiss Confederation
जर्मन: Schweiz — Schweizerische Eidgenossenschaft

फ्रेंच: Suisse — Confédération Suisse

इटैलियन: [Svizzera — Confederazione Svizzera] error: {{lang}}: text has italic markup (help)

रोमांश: Svizra — Confederaziun svizra
Bern / Berne

जर्मन: Bern

फ्रेंच: Berne

इटैलियन: [Berna] error: {{lang}}: text has italic markup (help)
7,925,517 41,277 किमी2 (15,937 वर्ग मील)
Turkey[e][i]

Republic of Turkey
तुर्की: Türkiye — Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Ankara

तुर्की: Ankara
79,749,461 783,562 किमी2 (302,535 वर्ग मील)
Ukraine यूक्रेनियन: Украïна (Ukraina) Kiev

यूक्रेनियन: Київ (Kyiv)
44,854,065 603,550 किमी2 (233,032 वर्ग मील)
United Kingdom*[h]

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
अंगरेजी: United Kingdom — United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland London

अंगरेजी: London
63,047,162 243,610 किमी2 (94,058 वर्ग मील)
Vatican City

Vatican City State


Holy See
इटैलियन: [Città del Vaticano — Stato della Città del Vaticano] error: {{lang}}: text has italic markup (help)

लैटिन: Sancta Sedes[11]
Vatican City

इटैलियन: [Città del Vaticano] error: {{lang}}: text has italic markup (help)
836 0.44 किमी2 (0.17 वर्ग मील)

Partially recognised statesEdit

The following six entities in Europe have partial diplomatic recognition by one or more UN member states (and therefore are defined as states by the constitutive theory of statehood) or have no diplomatic recognition by any UN member state but are defined as states by the declarative theory of statehood and are recognised by one or more Non-UN member states. None are members of the UN, Council of Europe or EU.

Flag Map English short and formal names Status Domestic short and formal names Capital Population[a] Area[a]
Abkhazia[b]

Republic of Abkhazia
Claimed as an autonomous republic of Georgia. Recognised by four UN states. अबखजियाई: Аҧсны (Apsny)

रूसी: Абха́зия (Abhazia)
Sukhumi

अबखजियाई: Аҟəа (Akwa)

रूसी: Сухуми
250,000 [12] 8,660 किमी2 (3,344 वर्ग मील)[13]
Kosovo

Republic of Kosovo[2]
Recognised by 108 UN member states; Serbia does not recognise the 2008 Kosovo declaration of independence, and claims it as an autonomous province. अल्बानियन: Kosova / Kosovë — Republika e Kosovës

सर्बियाई: Косово — Република Косово (Kosovo — Republika Kosovo)
Pristina[5]

अल्बानियन: Prishtina, Prishtinë

सर्बियाई: Приштина (Priština)
1,836,529[7] 10,887 किमी2 (4,203 वर्ग मील)[8]
Nagorno-Karabakh[b]

Nagorno-Karabakh Republic
Claimed as part of Azerbaijan. Recognised by 3 non-UN states. आर्मेनियाई: Լեռնային Ղարաբաղ — Լեռնային Ղարաբաղ Հանրապետություն (Lernayin Gharabaghi — Lernayin Gharabaghi Hanrapetut’yun)[14] Stepanakert

आर्मेनियाई: Ստեփանակերտ (Khankendi)
141,400[15] 7,000 किमी2 (2,703 वर्ग मील)[16]
Northern Cyprus[c]

Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus
Claimed as part of the Republic of Cyprus. Recognised by Turkey. तुर्की: Kuzey Kıbrıs — Kuzey Kıbrıs Türk Cumhuriyeti Nicosia

तुर्की: Lefkoşa
294,906[17] 3,355 किमी2 (1,295 वर्ग मील)[8]
Transnistria / Trans-Dniester

Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic
Claimed as a territorial unit of Moldova. Recognised by 3 non-UN states. मोल्डोवन: [Нистрянэ — Република Молдовеняскэ Нистрянэ] error: {{lang}}: unrecognized language code: mo (help) (Transnistria — Republica Moldovenească Nistreană)

रूसी: Приднестро́вье — Приднестро́вская Молда́вская Респу́блика (Pridnestrov'ye — Pridnestrovskaya Moldavskaya Respublika)

यूक्रेनियन: Придністров'я — Придністровська Молдавська Республіка (Prydnistrov'ya — Pridnistrovs'ka Moldavs'ka Respublika)
Tiraspol

मोल्डोवन: [Тираспол] error: {{lang}}: unrecognized language code: mo (help)

रूसी: Тирáсполь

यूक्रेनियन: Тирасполь
530,000[18] 3,500 किमी2 (1,351 वर्ग मील)[19]
South Ossetia[b]

Republic of South Ossetia
Claimed as part of Georgia. Recognised by four UN states. ओसेसियन: Хуссар Ирыстон — Республикæ Хуссар Ирыстон (Khussar Iryston — Respublikæ Khussar Iryston)

रूसी: Южная Осетия — Республика Южная Осетия (Yuzhnaya Osetiya — Respublika Yuzhnaya Osetiya)
Tskhinvali

ओसेसियन: Цхинвал or Чъреба (Chreba)
70,000[20] 3,900 किमी2 (1,506 वर्ग मील)[21]

Dependent territoriesEdit

The following six European entities are dependent territories.[22]

* = Part of the EU, although there may be special arrangements
Flag Map English short and formal names[2][4] Legal status Domestic short and formal names Capital[5] Population[7] Area[8]
Akrotiri and Dhekelia [c]

Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia[प्रमाण देईं]
British overseas territory अंगरेजी: Akrotiri and Dhekelia — Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia Episkopi Cantonment

अंगरेजी: Episkopi Cantonment
15,700 254 किमी2 (98 वर्ग मील)
Faroe Islands / Faeroe Islands Constituent country of the Kingdom of Denmark फैरो: [Føroyar] error: {{lang}}: text has italic markup (help)

डैनिश: [Færøerne] error: {{lang}}: text has italic markup (help)
Tórshavn

फैरो: [Tórshavn] error: {{lang}}: text has italic markup (help)

डैनिश: [Thorshavn] error: {{lang}}: text has italic markup (help)
49,267 1,393 किमी2 (538 वर्ग मील)
Gibraltar*[23] British overseas territory अंगरेजी: Gibraltar Gibraltar

अंगरेजी: Gibraltar
28,956 6.5 किमी2 (2.5 वर्ग मील)
Guernsey[h]

Bailiwick of Guernsey
Crown Dependency of The Crown in Right of the United Kingdom अंगरेजी: Guernsey — Bailiwick of Guernsey

फ्रेंच: Guernesey — Bailliage de Guernesey

Guernésiais: Guernesey — Bailliage de Guernesey
Saint Peter Port

अंगरेजी: Saint Peter Port

फ्रेंच: Saint Pierre Port

Guernésiais: Saint Pierre Port
65,068 78 किमी2 (30 वर्ग मील)
Isle of Man[h] Crown Dependency of The Crown in Right of the United Kingdom अंगरेजी: Isle of Man

मान्स्क: Mannin — Ellan Vannin
Douglas

अंगरेजी: Douglas

मान्स्क: Doolish
84,655 572 किमी2 (221 वर्ग मील)
Jersey[h]

Bailiwick of Jersey
Crown Dependency of The Crown in Right of the United Kingdom अंगरेजी: Jersey — Bailiwick of Jersey

फ्रेंच: Jèrri — Bailliage de Jèrri

Jèrriais: Jèrri — Bailliage de Jèrri
Saint Helier

अंगरेजी: Saint Helier

फ्रेंच: Saint-Hélier

Jèrriais: Saint Hélyi
94,161 116 किमी2 (45 वर्ग मील)

Special areas of internal sovereigntyEdit

The following places are considered integral parts of their controlling state, but have a political arrangement which was decided through an international agreement.

* = Part of the EU, although there may be special arrangements
Flag Map English short and formal names Legal status Domestic short and formal names Capital Population Area
Åland*[24]

Åland Islands[4]
Self-governing area of Finland, determined by the result of the Åland crisis[25] स्वीडिश: [Åland — Landskapet Åland] error: {{lang}}: text has italic markup (help) Mariehamn[4]

स्वीडिश: [Mariehamn] error: {{lang}}: text has italic markup (help)
27,500[26] 6,787 किमी2 (2,620 वर्ग मील)[26]
Svalbard[2] Special territory of Norway, determined by the Svalbard Treaty[27] Bokmål: Svalbard Longyearbyen[4][5]

Bokmål: Longyearbyen
2,019[7] 62,045 किमी2 (23,956 वर्ग मील)[8]

संदर्भEdit

  1. "Member States". Europa. पहुँचतिथी 17 फरवरी 2011.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 "Field Listing :: Names". Central Intelligence Agency. पहुँचतिथी 17 फरवरी 2011.
  3. 3.0 3.1 "UNGEGN List of Country Names" (PDF). United Nations Statistics Division. 2007. पहुँचतिथी 2011-02-24.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 "List of countries, territories and currencies". Europa. 9 August 2011. पहुँचतिथी 10 August 2011.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 "Field Listing :: Capital". Central Intelligence Agency. पहुँचतिथी 17 फरवरी 2011.
  6. "UNGEGN World Geographical Names". United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names. 13 September 2010. पहुँचतिथी 24 फरवरी 2011.
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 "Country Comparison :: Population". Central Intelligence Agency. July 2012. पहुँचतिथी 2 September 2012.
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 "Field Listing :: Area". Central Intelligence Agency. पहुँचतिथी 3 मार्च 2011.
  9. "Republic of Ireland Act, 1948". No. 22/1948. 1948. पहुँचतिथी 2008-12-16.
  10. उद्धरण खराबी:Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Netherlands
  11. "Holy See (Vatican City)". Cia.gov. पहुँचतिथी 2011-02-24.
  12. "Regions and territories: Abkhazia". BBC News. 2011-02-08. पहुँचतिथी 2011-02-17.
  13. "Abkhazia (autonomous republic, Georgia)". Britannica.com. पहुँचतिथी 2011-03-03.
  14. "Country Overview". nkrusa.org. पहुँचतिथी 2011-03-07.
  15. "Official website of the President of the Nagorno Karabagh Republic". President.nkr.am. 2010-01-01. पहुँचतिथी 2011-02-17.
  16. "Nagorno-Karabakh (region, Azerbaijan)". Britannica.com. पहुँचतिथी 2011-03-03.
  17. "Turkish Cyprus announces population as 294,906". World Bulletin. 2011-12-09. पहुँचतिथी 2014-01-09.
  18. "Trans-Dniester profile". BBC News. 2011-01-20. पहुँचतिथी 2011-02-17.
  19. "Transdniestria (separatist enclave, Moldova)". Britannica.com. पहुँचतिथी 2011-03-03.
  20. "Regions and territories: South Ossetia". BBC News. 2011-02-08. पहुँचतिथी 2011-02-17.
  21. "South Ossetia". Hartford-hwp.com. पहुँचतिथी 2011-03-09.
  22. "CIA - The World Factbook - Field Listing :: Dependency status". Cia.gov. 1920-02-09. पहुँचतिथी 2011-02-17.
  23. Mark Oliver, Sally Bolton, Jon Dennis and Matthew Tempest (2004-08-04). "Gibraltar; Politics". Guardian. पहुँचतिथी 2011-02-17.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  24. European Commission for Democracy through Law (1996). Local self-government, territorial integrity, and protection of minorities: proceedings of the UniDem Seminar organised in Lausanne on 25–27 अप्रैल 1996, in co-operation with the Swiss Institute of Comparative Law. Strasbourg: Council of Europe. पप. 32–35. ISBN 92-871-3173-2.
  25. "Independence". Visitaland.com. पहुँचतिथी 2011-03-03.
  26. 26.0 26.1 "Åland Official Tourist Gateway - Facts". Visitaland.com. पहुँचतिथी 2011-02-17.
  27. "The Svalbard Treaty". Governor of Svalbard. 2008-04-09. पहुँचतिथी 2011-03-03.